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Detective Services
Signs of Infidelity
Divorce In India

Detectives Agencies In India

Preventing Credit Card Frauds

Men Better Sniffing out infidelity
Seven ways to sniff out Infidelity!
Woman Confront Her Husband
Pre employment Screening

Employee Fraud

Articles of Interest

Signs of Infidelity - 26 Clues to Cheating Spouses

A cheating spouse or significant other will tend to exhibit some of the signs of infidelity listed below. If you are suspicious of a loved one, go through our signs of infidelity checklist. Does your mate shows any signs of unavailability at work, increased time away from home or unusual cell phone usage, or other signs of infidelity? If more than a few of the indicators below are present, the next step is to conduct surveillance to confirm your suspicions. At GDL we deliver quality investigation backed-up by a 46 -year track record. By contacting us, you will be able to obtain piece of mind.

Domestic - At Home
Sudden increase in time away from home
Decreased sexual interest
Subject is often distracted and day dreaming
Subject is often unavailable at work
Subject attends more work functions alone
Cell phone calls are not returned in timely fashion
Subject leaves house or goes to other rooms to talk on the telephone
Subject uses computer alone and secretly
Subject asks about your schedule more often than usual
Mileage on car is high when only short distance errands are run
Clothes contain makeup or lipstick smudges

Records
Credit card bills contain unusual gifts, travel, restaurant and "unspecified" charges
Unexplained payments on bank statements
Subject has more cash on hand without accountability
Cell phone bills contain calls with long duration
Home phone and calling card records contain calls with long duration
Business phone records contain unusual calls
Subject has unexplained receipts or personal effects in wallet

Technical
Subject has suspicious phone voice-mail messages
Subject has suspicious cell phone numbers stored or dialed
Subject has suspicious text messages
Subject deletes text messages immediately
Internet web browser history list (this is a record of web sites visited) contains unusual sites
Frequent visits to Internet free e-mail accounts
Uncommon e-mail messages
Uncommon deleted e-mail messages

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Divorce In India

The Law

All major religions have their own laws which govern divorces within their own community, and separate regulations exist regarding divorce in interfaith marriages.
Hindus, including Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains, are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; Christians by the Indian Divorce Act, 1869; Parsis by the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936; and Muslims by the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939, which provides the grounds on which women can obtain a divorce, and the uncodified civil law. Civil marriages and inter-community marriages and divorces are governed by the Special Marriage Act, 1956 .Other community specific legislation includes the Native Converts' Marriage Dissolution Act, 1866 that allows a Hindu to appeal for a divorce if a spouse converts to Christianity.

Grounds for Divorce

In most Western nations, there are approximately 16 distinct reasons for which divorces are granted. In India, however, only five main reasons are generally accepted as sufficient grounds for divorce.

Adultery. While no formal definition of adultery exists, it does have "a fairly established meaning in matrimonial law", namely "the voluntary sexual intercourse of a married man or woman with a person other than the offender's wife or husband". While the law considers it valid grounds for either sex, adulterous women are "judged more harshly" than men.

The various religious regulations are not unanimous on this issue. The law regarding Hindus allows divorce to be granted on the grounds of infidelity of either husband or wife. The Christian law, however, would traditionally not have granted a divorce to a woman solely on the grounds of adultery. She would have had to prove another violation, such as cruelty .A recent Bombay High Court decision "recognised cruelty and desertion as independent grounds for the dissolution of a Christian marriage," striking down a section of the law that allowed for an unconstitutional distinction between the sexes.

Desertion. The three main components of desertion are the "disruption of cohabitation, absence of just or reasonable cause and their combination throughout three years" before the abandoned spouse may petition for a divorce. There also must be an obvious intent on the part of the offending spouse to remain permanently apart from the other. This statute also applies to cases in which a spouse has been heard from for at least seven years .

Cruelty. As with adultery, "the definition of the type of behavior that constitutes cruelty varies according to the gender of the petitioner" of the divorce. "Despite the fact that cruelty is often equally available to husbands and wives, the way in which the law is interpreted and applied suggests that women and men are evaluated by rather different standards" .This category includes both physical and mental abuse and neglect.

A court decision made in early May 1997 made cruelty sufficient grounds for a Christian woman to obtain a; previously, the law required both adultery and cruelty to be proven. The national Indian Christian community seems to have embraced this judgment.

Impotency. This refers to the physical inability of the couple to consummate the marriage or the refusal by one spouse to do so. Some cases have established that sterility can be construed to mean non-consummation if the other partner is not aware of the condition before the marriage.

Chronic Disease. Both mental and physical illnesses are included in this category, as well as sexually transmitted diseases. Not all religions recognize identical diseases as grounds for divorce. Christians and Parsis do not allow divorce for a sexually transmitted disease or leprosy while the other communities do.

Divorce under Muslim law

Muslims are governed by their personal laws under which "Nikah" (i.e. marriage) is a contract and may be permanent or temporary and permits a man 4 wives if he treats all of them equally. To have a valid "Nikah" under the Muslim Law, presence of a Qazi (Priest) is not necessary. Merely a proposal in the presence and hearing of two sane males or one sane male and two sane female adults, all Muslims and acceptance of the said proposals at the same time constitute a valid Nikah under the Muslim Personal Law. A husband can divorce his wife without any reasons merely by pronouncing thrice the word "Talak". However for a Muslim woman to obtain divorce certain conditions are necessary.

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Detectives Agencies In India

If you just go a decade back, a common man hardly knew about the detective agency. Mostly, influential people and corporate houses used to avail such services. At the same time, there were handful of detective agencies in India.

The scenario changed with globalisation and emergence of internet & news channels. Today, detective agency has reached even to a common man. Many people (especially security agencies) saw detective agency has a lucrative business and started operating detective agency with no prior experience and infrastructure. If you search the internet you would find dozens of detective agencies.

With the growing number of detective agencies, it becomes difficult for a first timer to choose a detective agency which can solve his problem and not just giving expensive false promises. In order to help you, we have formulated a guideline which would help to differentiate a professional detective agency from money munchers:

Guideline

  • Check the number of years the detective agency is in existence
  • Check the number of branches and employee strength
  • Check the profesionalism with which the entire operaton is conducted right from booking the case to reporting
    Agency with credibility in the market
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Preventing Credit Card Frauds

By taking certain precautions, a user can prevent their credit or debit card from being misused both online and offline.

  1. Do not provide photocopies of both the sides of  the credit card to anyone. The card verification value (CVV) which is required for online transactions is printed on the reverse of the card. Anyone can use the card for online purchases if the information is available with them.
  2. Do not click on links in email seeking details of  your account, they could be phishing emails from fraudsters. Most reputed companies will ask you to visit their website directly.
  3. While using a credit card for making payments online, check if the website is secure The CVV will also be required.
  4. Do not give any information to persons seeking credit card information over phone
  5. Notify your bank / credit card issuer if  you do not receive the monthly credit card statement on time. If a credit card is misplaced or lost, get it cancelled immediately

Courtesy : Cyber Crime Cell Mumbai

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Men better at sniffing out infidelity

LONDON: Men are better at detecting infidelity

than women but females appear to be much better at concealing it, a fascinating study has suggested.

The study, published in the journal Human Nature, found that men are better at unearthing infidelity than women but tend to suspect their female partners even when they are faithful.

When scientists interviewed 203 heterosexual couples about their infidelities, they found that women made correct inferences about their partner's infidelity about 80% of the time but men scored significantly higher 94%.

"Women are probably more reticent in disclosing information. They appear to be so much better at concealing their infidelity whereas men are better at detecting infidelity, based on this evidence," said Paul Andrews of Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond.

Even as men were more likely to detect infidelity, males were more likely to have cheated on their wives or girlfriends, with 29% admitting to at least one affair compared to 18.5% of the women.

"We also developed a statistical method for estimating the amount of under-reporting of infidelity. We found that men tended to be honest about their affairs whereas women tended to under-report infidelities by about 10%," lead researcher Andrews was quoted as saying by the Independent. According to the report in the British daily, men honed by evolution to be wary of infidelity in their female partners are more motivated to seek out information to resolve suspicions.

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Seven ways to sniff out Infidelity!
Not sure if your partner is true to you? Well, then here are a few signs that may help sniff out whether he/she is lying or not.
Here are seven ways to identify a liar, reports FoxNews.

  1. Consider the person’s recall: Liars never forget what they have to say but they may stumble when telling a tale by making contradicting statements. They’re also eager to change the subject.
  2. Observe the person’s overall body language: Liars can look ill at ease, fiddling with their hair, stroking their throat, or rubbing their eyes. With their body often turned away from you, you may notice hand or leg fidgeting. Liars also have trouble swallowing and may shake their heads after a point has been made. When the subject finally gets changed, they appear happier and more comfortable, maybe laughing nervously.
  3. Take notice of any defensiveness: Liars will often take offence to any indication that they’re under suspicion. They’re likely to throw any accusations you throw at them back at you. They will also talk too much, feeling the need to over-explain themselves.
  4. Home in on facial expressions: Liars fail to control their micro-expressions. While fibbing, you may notice nervous twitching. Their hand may be covering or touching their face. People also tend to touch the mouth when feeling guilty or anxious. They’re particularly good with fake smiles.
  5. Don’t overlook the Pinocchio reaction: When a human tells a lie, extra blood gets pumped through the body and the nose swells by a fraction of millimeter. Liars may subsequently touch the tip of their nose unconsciously.
  6. Concentrate on the eyes: A liar has a troubled brow and downcast or darting eyes. They have trouble directly engaging your gaze. They also give you eye-accessing clues. If the person is telling you the truth, he’ll look up and to the left since that’s the side of the brain we use for recalling information. If she’s lying, she’ll look up and to the right, which is the creative side of the brain, because she’s mentally constructing something that hasn’t happened.
  7. Note the person’s voice: The higher the stakes are, the more the liar has a fear of getting caught. With this, the liar has a harder time controlling his body language or her voice. The pitch or rate of the speech may change, with the individual giving a lot of “umms” and “ahhs.” Often, a liar will appear stilted and monotone. Answers may seem rehearsed.
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Should a woman confront her husband if she suspects he is cheating or wait until she has definitive evidence?

Rather than 'Confront' I'd recomend using the word converse. To confront him means that he is already guilty and the conversation will be one sided. He will get backed into a corner, with little room to escape. If the shoe was on the other foot, Is this how you would want him to deal with you? You don't win by putting people down, you win by being able to resolve an issue of the past. That's how you can move forward. You cannot change history, why would you want to constantly have to deal with it?

Would you charge a criminal without sufficient evidence to obtain a conviction and rely on their integrity to be forthcoming with the truth when challenged on the suspicion of having committed an offence?

Obtain the EVIDENCE you need to satisfy yourself of infidelity -- and save yourself listening to endless excuses, lies and denials

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Pre employment Screening, are we following it “rigorously”?

The biggest asset a company may have is the “ Human Resource”. While hiring these resources we have found a growing level of major discrepancies and embellishments on CVs. The candidates are getting innovative while covering up the break in their career. They follow these practices to make their CV look more attractive & remarkable but they don’t realize the
Consequences of what would happen to their career once they are trapped during Pre – Employment Screening. At Times the erroneous information provided is harmless – for instance they might mention some recreational hobbies such as football or cricket to demonstrate their ability to be a “Team Player”, but there can also be serious misrepresentation crossing legal or ethical boundaries. For instance - increase in compensation, stating higher designations, fake employment, creating of job responsibilities & false qualifications, etc.

The boom in the IT industry has led to the rise in employment hence people tend to fake information which includes educational qualification, so that they can get a good offer from a better Company. It has been found that the percentage of candidates misrepresenting facts on their CV’s has increased rapidly. The Extent of such fake information ranges from 20 – 25% in most of the cases. As the candidates are becoming more deceitful in their CV’s & job applications, companies should become more “rigorous” in checking the facts. Today there are many organizations specializing in Pre – Employment Screening of employees one of them is GDL INTERNATIONAL DETECTIVES

Pre-employment screening helps in verifying the accuracy of an applicant's claims as well as to discover any possible criminal history, workers compensation claims, or employer sanctions. Employment screening can be a practical and significantly reduces employee theft and dishonesty and notably increases productivity and safety. Certain industries require employment checks on all employees. Examples include the banking, financial, and security industries, transportation industries, childcare, healthcare, and teaching industries and law enforcement companies. The level of background investigation may vary from industry to industry or position to position. Employers who actively screen their applicants before hiring face less liability in the event of a workplace accident or crime. Pre-employment screening is a primary way of eliminating or minimizing negligent hiring liability.

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Employee Fraud
 An employee fraud is not a new concept or term for India. The annual survey by KPMG (a leading management consultant) has provided many interesting insights to the recent scenario concerning employee frauds. The sample of the survey covered more than 1000 public and private organisations in India. According to the survey, 47 percent of the frauds in the organisations have been done by either the employees or the senior executives with a decision making authority. .

Types of frauds:
The most common fraud reported by the organisations is the magnified or the inflated expense account by the employees. In these types of fraud, the expenses incurred by the employees are exaggerated and false invoices are submitted to the organisation for re-imbursement. Such frauds account for almost 50 per cent of the total losses incurred by the organisations because of employee frauds.    
           
Other types of frauds faced by the organisations are:

  • Keeping a secret share of commissions from suppliers for self   
  • Counterfeiting or faking the company cheques  
  • Purchase of goods for personal use on company expense         
  • Manipulating customer’s accounts        
  • Using official information for personal benefits   
  • Forging financial statements      
  • Misappropriation of other company resources  
  • Corporate espionage   

Frauds related to manipulating and misusing the power to access the confidential information about the customers and the organisation and theft of data were also found to be more common than the rest.           
           
Dimensions of frauds:   
Any or every employee/ executive fraud, has the following magnitude or dimensions:     
           
The human dimension - There is always a human mind behind every executive fraud. It has been found to be of an internal employee or management in 90 per cent of the cases. Employees use their power and intelligence for corporate espionage.           
The technology dimension - Technology has emerged as a very important dimension to the employee frauds. New technologies have given way to unethical practices like hacking etc. On one hand, where the information technology can be effectively used to check frauds, it can and is giving opportunities and assistance to the people in planning and executing frauds. 
The legal dimension – The last dimension is the legal dimension that the legal framework and the institutional system regarding the frauds. It also includes organizational practices and policies regarding frauds.           
           
           
Detection of frauds      
According to the survey report of KPMG, a majority of the frauds were exposed by internal controls or check measures. Whistle-blowers or, many a times, anonymous notifications received also help to detect frauds. What follows the detection is the investigation by the management of the organisation , a review of the entire situation, followed by actions like firing the concerned employee, formal police investigation, and sometimes – letting the employee resign.  
           
The study by KPMG also sights the fact that most of the Indian organisations are unprepared to detect, handle or deal with fraud. Also, shocking was the fact that as much as 77 per cent of the respondents do not even conduct or has fraud diagnostic review systems in their organisations; nor do 84 per cent of the respondents have a written fraud policy. Assured of their security and internal control systems, 52 percent of the respondents (corporate heads) did not consider frauds as a threat or major problem.          
           
Scenario in Indian sectors        
The percentage of risk from corporate espionage of the information communication and entertainment sectors, and financial sector of India (including all the financial service providers) is as high as 84 and 81 per cent respectively. But the sector which is facing the frequent brunt of the problem is the emerging BPO sector in India. Cases of frauds in BPO sector, employees using the customer’s confidential information, manipulation in accounts are getting common. The reasons being quoted for the increasing number of frauds are: 
           
Weakening of society's values, 
The growing economic pressures,         
More sophisticated technologies to assist criminals        
Urbane and intelligent criminals and      
Inadequate punishment for those who are caught          
           
Solutions
The first and the foremost solution to the problem are the reference checks and affirming the employee details of the employees before their confirmation in an organisation. To reduce the possibilities of frauds, it is advisable to design and incorporate the fraud diagnostic systems in the organisations creating internal detection systems. Also, regular periodic rotation of the staff can help reduce the possibilities of the employee frauds. As many organisation not being capable of detecting theft & fraud, it is higly advisable to assign the task to some professional detective agency who is able to understand the problem and capable of solving such kind of cases.        

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